The Yanomami

Mining, ranching, and health care chaos threaten Yanomami

For thousands of years, the Yanomami have thrived in the rainforests of South America.

Now, they are struggling as the government fails to protect them from criminal invasions, attacks and disease.

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The Yanomami are the largest relatively isolated tribe in South America. They live in the rainforests and mountains of northern Brazil and southern Venezuela.

Davi Yanomami in a Yanomami community, Brazil
Davi Yanomami in a Yanomami community, Brazil
© Survival

Like most tribes on the continent, they probably migrated across the Bering Straits between Asia and America some 15,000 years ago, making their way slowly down to South America. Today their total population stands at around 32,000.

At over 9.6 million hectares, the Yanomami territory in Brazil is twice the size of Switzerland. In Venezuela, the Yanomami live in the 8.2 million hectare Alto Orinoco – Casiquiare Biosphere Reserve. Together, these areas form the largest forested indigenous territory in the world.

Latest threats

Over 1,000 gold-miners are now working illegally on Yanomami land, transmitting deadly diseases like malaria and polluting the rivers and forest with mercury. Cattle ranchers are invading and deforesting the eastern fringe of their land.

Yanomami health is suffering and critical medical care is not reaching them, especially in Venezuela.

The Brazilian congress is currently debating a bill which, if approved, will permit large-scale mining in indigenous territories. This will be extremely harmful to the Yanomami and other remote tribes in Brazil.

‘Our land is our heritage.’Shaman Davi Kopenawa Yanomami, speaks about what the proposed mining bill would mean for his people.

The Yanomami have not been properly consulted about their views and have little access to independent information about the impacts of mining.

Davi Kopenawa, a leading Yanomami spokesman and President of Hutukara Yanomami Association, warns of the dangers.

‘The Yanomami people do not want the national congress to approve the law or the president to sign it. We do not want to accept this law.’

‘Our land has to be respected. Our land is our heritage, a heritage which protects us.’

‘Mining will only destroy nature. It will only destroy the streams and the rivers and kill the fish and kill the environment – and kill us. And bring in diseases which never existed in our land.’

Uncontacted Yanomami

Yanomami have reported seeing uncontacted Yanomami, whom they call Moxateteu, in the Yanomami territory. The Moxateteu are believed to be living in the part of the Yanomami territory with the highest concentration of illegal goldminers.

A Yanomami boy paddles his canoe back to his village in the Brazilian Amazon.
A Yanomami boy paddles his canoe back to his village in the Brazilian Amazon.
© Survival

Contact with the miners could be very dangerous for the Moxateteu, as violent conflict could erupt. The miners also spread malaria and other diseases, which could be fatal for the Moxateteu who will not have built up immunity to common diseases.

FUNAI, the Brazilian government’s indigenous affairs department, has placed a new team in the area to ascertain where the Moxateteu are and how many they are, without making contact.

Davi Kopenawa said, ‘There are many uncontacted Indians. I don’t know them, but I know they are suffering just like we are… I want to help my uncontacted relatives who have the same blood as us. It is really important for all Indians, including the uncontacted Indians, to stay on the land where we were born.’

How does Survival help?

Survival has supported the Yanomami for decades. We led the international campaign for the demarcation of Yanomami territory, along with the Brazilian NGO, the Pro Yanomami Commission (CCPY). We have also supported their health and education projects.

Yanomami family
Yanomami family
© Victor Englebert / Survival

Despite repeated requests from the Yanomami, the Brazilian authorities have failed to remove the illegal gold-miners and failed to sort out the health crisis.

The Yanomami’s health is now at risk as malaria and other diseases are spreading.

Please join us in pushing for the Yanomami’s land rights and their protection from outsiders’ disease and violence.


The Yanomami first came into sustained contact with outsiders in the 1940s when the Brazilian government sent teams to delimit the frontier with Venezuela.

Soon the government’s Indian Protection Service and religious missionary groups established themselves there. This influx of people led to the first epidemics of measles and flu in which many Yanomami died.

Yanomami mother and child.
Yanomami mother and child.
© Steve Cox/Survival

In the early 1970s the military government decided to build a road through the Amazon along the northern frontier. With no prior warning bulldozers drove through the community of Opiktheri. Two villages were wiped out from diseases to which they had no immunity.

The Yanomami continue to suffer from the devastating and lasting impacts of the road which brought in colonists, diseases and alcohol. Today cattle ranchers and colonists use the road as an access point to invade and deforest the Yanomami area.

The gold rush and genocide

During the 1980s, the Yanomami suffered immensely when up to 40,000 Brazilian gold-miners invaded their land. The miners shot them, destroyed many villages, and exposed them to diseases to which they had no immunity. Twenty percent of the Yanomami died in just seven years.

After a long international campaign led by Davi Kopenawa Yanomami, Survival and the CCPY (Pro Yanomami Commission), Yanomami land in Brazil was finally demarcated as the ‘Yanomami Park’ in 1992 and the miners expelled.

Gold miners work illegally on the Yanomami’s land.
Gold miners work illegally on the Yanomami’s land.
© Colin Jones/Survival

However, after the demarcation gold-miners returned to the area, causing tensions. In 1993, a group of miners entered the village of Haximú and murdered 16 Yanomami including a baby.

After a national and international outcry a Brazilian court found five miners guilty of genocide. Two are serving jail sentences whilst the others escaped.

This is one of the few cases anywhere in the world where a court has convicted people of genocide.

The gold mining invasion of Yanomami land continues. The situation is Venezuela is very serious, and Yanomami have been poisoned and exposed to violent attacks for several years. The authorities have done little to resolve these problems.

Indians in Brazil still do not have proper ownership rights over their land – the government refuses to recognise tribal land ownership, despite having signed the international law (ILO Convention 169) guaranteeing it. Moreover, many figures within the Brazilian establishment would like to see the Yanomami area reduced in size and opened up to mining, ranching and colonisation.

To make things even worse, the Brazilian army has built barracks in the Yanomami heartlands, which has increased tensions. Soldiers have prostituted Yanomami women, some of whom have been infected with sexually transmitted diseases.

Way of life

A Yanomami maloca. The Yanomami live in large, circular, communal houses called yanos or shabonos. Some can house up to 400 people. The central area is used for activities such as rituals, feasts and games.
A Yanomami maloca. The Yanomami live in large, circular, communal houses called yanos or shabonos. Some can house up to 400 people. The central area is used for activities such as rituals, feasts and games.
© Dennison Berwick/Survival

The Yanomami live in large, circular, communal houses called yanos or shabonos. Some can house up to 400 people. The central area is used for activities such as rituals, feasts and games.

Each family has its own hearth where food is prepared and cooked during the day. At night, hammocks are slung near the fire which is stoked all night to keep people warm.

The Yanomami believe strongly in equality among people. Each community is independent from others and they do not recognize ‘chiefs’. Decisions are made by consensus, frequently after long debates where everybody has a say.

Like most Amazonian tribes, tasks are divided between the sexes. Men hunt for game like peccary, tapir, deer and monkey, and often use curare (a plant extract) to poison their prey.

Yanomami, Demini, Brazil
Yanomami, Demini, Brazil
© Fiona Watson/Survival

Although hunting accounts for only 10% of Yanomami food, amongst men it is considered the most prestigious of skills and meat is greatly valued by everyone.

No hunter ever eats the meat that he has killed. Instead he shares it out among friends and family. In return, he will be given meat by another hunter.

Women tend the gardens where they grow around 60 crops which account for about 80% of their food. They also collect nuts, shellfish and insect larvae. Wild honey is highly prized and the Yanomami harvest 15 different kinds.

Yanomami boy
Yanomami boy
© Claudia Andujar/Survival

Both men and women fish, and timbó or fish poison is used in communal fishing trips. Groups of men, women and children pound up bundles of vines which are floated on the water. The liquid stuns the fish which rise to the water’s surface and are scooped up in baskets. They use nine species of vine just for fish poisoning.

The Yanomami have a huge botanical knowledge and use about 500 plants for food, medicine, house building and other artefacts. They provide for themselves partly by hunting, gathering and fishing, but crops are also grown in large gardens cleared from the forest. As Amazonian soil is not very fertile, a new garden is cleared every two or three years.

Shamanism and feasts

You see things, you dream, you know the xapiripë [spirits]. Shamans can cure the disease of the forests. Davi Kopenawa on shamanism

The spirit world is a fundamental part of Yanomami life. Every creature, rock, tree and mountain has a spirit. Sometimes these are malevolent, attack the Yanomami and are believed to cause illness.

Shamans control these spirits by inhaling a hallucinogenic snuff called yakoana. Through their trance like visions, they meet the spirits or xapiripë. Davi Kopenawa, a shaman explains:

‘Only those who know the xapiripë can see them because the xapiripë are very small and bright like light. There are many, many xapiripë, thousands of xapiripë like stars. They are beautiful, and decorated with parrot feathers and painted with urucum (annatto) and others have oraikok, others have earrings and use black dye and they dance very beautifully and sing differently.’

Yanomami shaman
Yanomami shaman
© Claudia Andujar/Survival

As is typical of hunter gatherers and shifting cultivators, it takes the Yanomami less than four hours work a day on average to satisfy all their material needs. Much time is left for leisure and social activities.

Inter-community visits are frequent. Ceremonies are held to mark events such as the harvesting of the peach palm fruit, and the reahu (funeral feast) which commemorates the death of an individual.

The future

The Yanomami believe strongly in equality among people. Each community is independent from others and they do not recognize ‘chiefs’. Decisions are made by consensus, frequently after long debates where everybody has a say.

Hutukara, the Yanomami association
Hutukara, the Yanomami association
© Hutukara

In 2004, Yanomami from 11 regions in Brazil met to form their own organisation, Hutukara (meaning ‘the part of the sky from which the earth was born’), to defend their rights and run their own projects.

As a result of their increasing contact with outsiders, the Yanomami and CCPY, a Brazilian NGO, set up a Yanomami education project. One of its main aims is to raise awareness amongst the Yanomami of their rights.

Yanomami teachers are being trained to teach reading, writing and maths in their communities. Other Yanomami have been trained as health agents by Urihi, a healthcare NGO.

However, in 2004 the Brazilian government’s National Health Foundation (FUNASA) took charge of Yanomami health care. Since then, the Yanomami have increasingly denounced the chaotic health care system.

Officials are being investigated for corruption and stealing money from the health programme. Medicines and vital equipment are not reaching communities stricken by malaria and other diseases, and Yanomami are dying.

Yanomami in Venezuela formed their own organization called Horonami in 2011 to defend their rights.

Act now to help the Yanomami

Your support will help the Yanomami keep control of their lands, lives and futures. There are many ways you can help.